Net Present Value (NPV) is the current worth of an income stream in today's currency. It is used to make a decision to proceed with an expenditure, for example: The construction of a new building Proceeding with a new business line Purchase of equipment Net Present value takes into account the time value of money. It uses a discount rate to convert future … [Read more...]

## The 4 Parts of a Strong Business Case

A business case is the justification an organization uses for making a decision or undertaking an initiative. Its format can range anywhere from a formal report to an informal presentation or memo. Business cases are the foundation upon which all business is built. New capital projects, process improvement initiatives, growth strategies, and the like are all … [Read more...]

## The 3 Main Capital Budgeting Methods

How do large corporations make the decision to proceed with a project? What data or metrics do they consider prior to investing billions into a new plant, a new high rise condo, or major I.T. project? Capital budgeting refers to the financial modelling that evaluates the feasibility and compares potential project investments. At the end of the day, … [Read more...]

## The Components of a Feasibility Study

A project feasibility study is a report that investigates the viability of a project. It seeks to provide its stakeholders with an analysis that results in a go/no-go decision. Feasibility studies are performed in a variety of industries. They are prominent in the oil & gas, mining, or renewable energy industries, or manufacturing industry for new plant … [Read more...]

## Valuation Using Discounted Cash Flow

Discounted cash flow is an project investment valuation method whereby future cash flows are discounted by a rate that accounts for the time value of money. It is used to make decisions between various available projects, or to determine the economic feasibility of a project. For example, when a business is expecting revenue of $250,000 next year, the current … [Read more...]

## What is the Internal Rate of Return?

The internal rate of return (IRR) of a project is the expected growth rate of a project investment. It can be compared to the rate of return obtained by investing the money in the stock market or in other projects. Organizations typically calculate IRR to make decisions between several investment alternatives. It is the discount that results in a net present … [Read more...]

## How to Use the Payback Period

Payback period is the length of time required for an investment to recover its capital. It is the amount of time required until the investment is in a break even position. It is generally used for investments that involve a large up front capital outlay, such as the construction of an industrial facility, or development of a software product. The shorter the … [Read more...]

## How to Calculate Present Value

If you were the head of your state's department of transportation, how would you choose between the following expenditures? Repaving a road: A large, one time expenditure which eliminates smaller expenditures for a long time. Filling potholes: A small, one time expenditure which eliminates the need for re-paving today, but the big expenditure is still … [Read more...]

## Net Present Value for Engineering Projects

The calculation of the net present value (NPV) is a budgeting technique that equates the discounted cash flows against the initial investment. The mathematical formula is: $$NPV = \sum_{t=1}^{n}\frac{FV_{t}}{(1 + k)^{t}} - I$$ Where: FV = Future cost of the cash inflows, I = Initial Investment k = Discount rate equal to the owner's cost of capital I … [Read more...]